1.212: Advanced Greek

Spring 2010

1.5 Credits

Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg

Dr. Mark Vitalis Hoffman


As a follow up to the required Greek course and as a complement to the Gospels and Epistles courses, an extending program of reading, translating, and studying Greek is immensely helpful, both in terms of increased Greek proficiency as well as to gain a greater understanding and appreciation of Scripture in its original language.  

This class will emphasize Greek grammar (using Wallace's Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics) and its application in translation to improve and supplement one’s understanding of biblical Greek. In addition to selected texts from the New Testament, there may be readings from the Septuagint, early Church Fathers, and other Hellenistic-Jewish texts. Prerequisite: knowledge of Greek.


By the completion of this course students will:

  1. exhibit increased competency in reading Greek with selections from the Greek New Testament, the Septuagint, other early Christian literature, and other Koine Greek documents
  2. demonstrate increased awareness of Greek syntax and the ability to reflect its nuances when translating
  3. demonstrate facility in using aids to Greek reading and translating including books, software (in particular, BibleWorks), and/or online resources
  4. demonstrate awareness of ongoing discussions in the field of New Testament Greek (e.g., linguistics, textual traditions, exegesis, or translation theory)


The main work of this class will be in reading and translating Koine Greek. We will be employing a variety of tools to expand Greek vocabulary and understanding of Greek syntax. In addition, students will do additional work in such fields as linguistics, textual traditions of the New Testament, Greek and exegesis, or translation theory. In order to broaden our perspectives and make us better aware of our grammatical and theological biases, some of our translation work will be conducted online with guest participants from around the world.


Successful achievement in this class will be based on:

To receive a passing grade for the course students will need to attain at least 70% total

For those taking the course for a grade, note the modified scale: 70-79 = C; 80-92 = B; 93-100 = A


Required Books


Recommended Books

Fascinated by Languages by Eugene A. Nida OR
Style and Discourse by E. A. Nida, J. P. Louw, A. H. Snyman, and J. v. W. Cronje OR
Let The Words Be Written: The Lasting Influence Of Eugene A. Nida by Philip C. Stine OR
Translation Studies by Susan Bassnett OR
Contemporary Translation Theories (Topics in Translation, 21) by Edwin Gentzler OR
The Inclusive-Language Debate: A Plea for Realism by D. A. Carson


Additional software or online resources may also be used


TNT= Translating the New Testament; GGBB=Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics


Week of:


Translation Text

GWave Work

February 1


Romans 1.16-17


February 8

TNT: 1-9; 13-26, 93-113

GGBB: skim Preface & Approach; read “Language of the NT”

Mark 1.9-11 // Matt 3.13-17 // Lk 3.21-22

Luke 16.19

February 15

TNT: read 1 from Part 2
(Porter or Gignac or LTJ)

Mark 3.1-6 & Matt 12.9-14 & Lk 6.6-11


February 22

TNT: 185-211



March 1

TNT: read 1 from Part 3
(Watson or Humphrey or Yeo or Tamez)



Mon-Tues, March 8-9 - SPRING RECESS – NO CLASS

March 15

TNT: 307-326



March 22

TNT: 327-346



March 29




April 1-2, Maundy Thurs.-Good Friday – NO CLASSES

April 5




April 12




April 19




April 26



‘Literal’ Transl.

April 21, Wednesday – Spring Convocation

May 3



‘Functional’ Transl.

May 10

Final Exam




Future translation texts include: